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     Documentation
     Draft SLUUG BBS Users Manual

   Manual, n.:
          A unit of documentation. There are always three or more on a
          given item. One is on the shelf; someone has the others. The
          information you need is in the others.

   -- Ray Simard


I.  UNIX server project. ( Net News & Bulletin Board Service )
    The St. Louis UNIX User Group operates a computer system to provide
    NETnews and Internet mail to members for a nominal annual fee.
    Internet dial-up access (BBS) is open to members
    in good standing who pay the annual fee.

    Each UNIX shell account gives direct Internet connectivity with 
    choice of shell, electronic mail, telnet, FTP, Usenet News groups
    and more.


II. Our volunteer server project host machines:
  - These change periodically as machines break, are upgraded, or
    are replaced.  Currently there are two systems named
    michelob and dark.  Accounts are created on both systems.
    The password files are not synchronized, so you should change
    your password on both systems when ever you change it.

    Your home directory is shared between the systems via NFS.
    The same support applications and programs are generally
    installed on all systems, but sometimes an application is only
    on one system or is at a different release level on the systems.


III. Available services on our UNIX host machine.
  a. We DON`t claim to provide commercial grade reliability.
    Hey, this is a volunteer effort.

  b. NO absolute PRIVACY on service.
    To protect this system from unauthorized use and to insure
    that this system is functioning properly, system administrators
    monitor the system.  This system is for the use of authorized users
    only.  Individuals using this computer system without authority,
    or in excess of their authority, are subject to having all of
    their activities on this sytem monitored and recorded by system
    personnel.  In the course of monitoring individuals who improperly
    use this system, or in the course of system maintenance, the
    activities of authorized users may also be monitored.  Anyone
    using this system expressly consents to such monitoring and is
    advised that if such monitoring reveals possible evidence of
    criminal activity, system personnel may provide the evidence of
    such monitoring to law enforcement officials.

    We don't care to snoop through your stuff, too much work.  But, we
    will turn you in to the FBI or whoever if you break the law.

  c. Resources to be determined, accounting, disk storage allocated.
    Right now we're too busy worrying about other things, but if the
    /home disk starts to get full everyone is expected to be a good
    citizen and do some housecleaning.

  d. We do NOT provide any printer services.
    It would take a very long cable to reach from our host to your
    front door.  However, ....

  e. Protocols - we add them as we find and get them.
    Would you care to volunteer to load your favorite application?

  f. Internet access.
    The Internet is a worldwide network of computer connected
    by common usage of the TCP/IP protocol.  It's users often
    transfer files, exchange mail, log into each other's systems
    and use a wide range of programs and services.

    Our UNIX project system has access to the Internet.

  g. Usenet access.
    This is our volunteer News server project, where it all started.
    It isn't really a network, but a collection of thousands of
    computers worldwide that exchange "news article" files.
    This "net news" system has hundreds of interactive discussion
    groups.  These are like single subject electronic bulletin
    boards that discuss everything from art to zoology.

    There are hundreds of "interest groups" within which participants
    swap opinions and information about the subject of interest, be
    it "sci.phys" or "alt.sex.kinky."  Be warned, however, that reading
    Internet News can become a full time activity, since an active
    interest group can generate hundreds of new messages daily.  It's
    somewhat like having every newspaper and magazine printed in the
    nation and world delivered to your front door.  Very addictive.


IV. Basic UNIX host computer access process.
  a. Agreeing to Cannons of Conduct.
    Currently this amounts to "be a good citizen" or we will kick you
    off the system and refund the balance of your subscription fee.
    Attend atleast two meetings (general or executive) each year and
    present yourself in person to an officer of the organization.

  b. Pay the money to...
    Whoever will take it to the Executive Board Meeting.  Preferably
    by check made payable to "St. Louis UNIX User's Group".

  c. Getting login id & password.
    At this time we do not have any demonstration or anonymous user
    accounts.

    Use of our UNIX host system requires an identification name for
    each subscribing user.  This will be provided after payment.  You
    will set your password when you log into the system.  A password
    is a combination of characters that verifies your identity to the
    computer.

    Unlike some MS-DOS based BBS's we can not read what you use as a
    password.  If you give your login identification to your spouse or
    cat, and either sends nasty electronic mail to the Whitehouse we
    just give your name to the Secret Service and YOU help them decide
    who did it.

  d. Connecting via telnet.
    Our system can be reached by those that already have access thru
    some other host computer by way of the Internet, generally as:

    example> telnet michelob.sluug.org

    Use of telnet is discouraged and probably blocked by firewalls since it
    is vulnerable to network sniffers that harvest passwords.  Connection
    using ssh is more secure since it encrypts the data including the
    password.  Clients for using ssh are available for many platforms
    free from several resources.  See http://www.openssh.org/
    for a client for your system.

  e. Connecting via modem.
    Our system can be reached by way of dialing in across a telephone
    line using a PC or MAC with communications software and a modem.

    Telephone numbers and other specifics will be provided to paying
    subscribers.  We have modems supporting speeds from 2400 thru
    28800 baud rate.


V.  UNIX server user responsibilities
  a. Backoff data
  b. Courtesy
  c. Let the user beware!!!


VI.  Logging on and logging off.
  a. General tips.

    Ctrl-D or "exit"
    exit (3)              - terminate a process after performing
    cleanup
    >
    > *always* logoff.  some of the dialin lines still have the problem
    > of leaving sessions active when the modem disconnects.  if you
    > just hangup the phone w/o logging off the next person to connect
    > on that line will get your session; it they do bad things you get
    > the credit . . .
    >

  b. Problems and solutions.
  c. Line hogs.


VII.  Shell Defaults and aids
  a. bourne shell
    sh (1)- shell, the standard UNIX system command interpreter and
    command-level language

  b. csh
    csh (1)       - a shell (command interpreter) with a C-like syntax
    and advanced interactive features

  c. others...


VIII.  Help
  a. Ain't none, 'cept us chickens.
  There is no generic "help" command common across all flavors of UNIX
  that would aid new users in learning our system.  We also miss
  such goodies as "assist", "glossary", "help", "learn", "mentor",
  "teach" and "sysadmin" that appear in Microsoft's XENIX and other
  System III and V variants of AT&T UNIX.  Or the 'info' on AIX (IBM's
  UNIX) which is a hypertext information database which has all of the
  operating system documentation.

  b. Using "man" pages.
    So far, the best (albeit poor second) I could come up with is using
  the generic "man" pages.

    1. "man "

      man (1)- display reference manual pages; find reference pages by
      keyword
      man (7)- macros to format Reference Manual pages


      Usage:      man [-] [-t] [-M path] [-T tmac.an] [ section ] name
        man -k keyword ...
        man -f file ...

    2. "man -k"

    3. "man man" overview

      example$ man man   { do this first, tells about "man" manuals }

      Note, you should be set up using the "pg" command to help you
      read the man pages which will give you the ":" prompt at the
      bottom of the screen.

      Respond with a "h" and press <RETURN> to invoke some additional
      help.

    4. other "man" page  examples

      The best that I've found so far are:

      example$ man intro   { do this one next, after "man man" }

      ????????:    example$ man info  { lists all kinds of commands }

      example$ man bsd   { re: Berkley Software Distribution }

      example$ man sh    { re: the standard bourne shell interpreter }

      example$ man csh   { re: C like shell interpreter }

      example$ man ksh   { re: the Korn shell interpreter }

  c. The "whatis" command

    whatis (1)    - display a one-line summary about a keyword

  d. The "whereis" command

    whereis (1) - locate the binary, source, and manual page files for
      a command

  e. The "-h" usage switch
    Also, within many executable programs there is the "-h" usage
    switch that generally gives the required syntax and available
    switches on many commands.

    example$ kermit -h    { lists many options for kermit }

    Note that "kermit" also has internal help available, and that many
    other applications use some form of "h", "help", "?" or "~?" to
    invoke a short summary of options.


IX.  Learning your way around UNIX.
  a. The hierarchical file structure.

    1. naming conventions
      (i). length and case, hidden files, little suffix special ability
      (ii). compatibility with DOS naming conventions.
    2. file permissions

  b. The HOME directory.

  c. Using "pwd"
    pwd (1)       - display the pathname of the current working
                    directory

  d. Moving about in the file system.

  e. Using "cd"

    cd (1)                        - change working directory

  f. Using "ls"
    ls (1V)                       - list the contents of a directory

    A simple command for finding out who else uses this system:

    example> ls ./

    mcvicker stan steve totten (etc., etc.)


  g. Using "chmod"
    chmod (1V)            - change the permissions mode of a file
    chmod, fchmod (2V)    - change mode of file

    example> chmod u+x filename


X.  Looking into files.
  a. Using "file"
    file (1)              - determine the type of a file by examining
                            its contents

  b. Using "head"
    head (1)              - display first few lines of specified files

  c. Using "tail"
    tail (1)              - display the last part of a file

  d. Using "cat"
    cat (1V)              - concatenate and display

  e. Using "more"
    more, page (1)        - browse or page through a text file

  f. Using "pg"
    pg (1V)               - page through a file on a soft-copy terminal

  g. Using "less"

    This is a pd browser that is a superset of more ("less is more than
    more").  it also runs under msdos so folks might be familiar with
    it from there.


XI.  Slightly difficult...
  a. Using "cp"
    cp (1)                - copy files

  b. Using "rm"
    rm, rmdir (1) - remove (unlink) files or directories

    Once removed the file is gone forever.  No such thing as an
    "undelete".

  c. Using "mkdir"
    mkdir (1)             - make a directory
    mkdir (2V)            - make a directory file


XII.  More difficult...
  a. Using "vi" the visual editor

    vi, view, vedit (1)   - visual display editor based on ex(1)

    This is the text editor that is on virtually every UNIX system.
    The choice of an editor approaches religion as a topic of
    discussion.  But, if you learn this editor you will never be
    without an editor, since it is on every kind of UNIX system.
    The power and capabilities of this editor is not readily obvious,
    and it is difficult to learn.  Many of the keystroke combinations
    that you learn with this editor will be duplicated in other UNIX
    applications that you will run across.

    Try using "stevie", a free public domain MS-DOS visual editor that
    is similar to "vi".  Using this editor on your own IBM compatible
    PC is the best way to learn to use "vi".  It's a lot better than
    using the original EDLIN editor provided with MS-DOS.  Using the
    new MS-DOS editor program EDIT also generates unviewable characters
    that are unfriendly to the UNIX side when they are uploaded from
    MS-DOS.

    Suggested reading:
    "Learning the vi Editor"  by Linda Lamb from O'Reilly & Assoc.
     ISBN: 0-937175-67-6 STLC: N/A

  b. editing your ".cshrc" file

    >Sorry for sounding like a novice, but I am used to the KORN shell
    >and am new to the C Shell.  I have what I hope is a simple
    question.
    >What commands do I need to put in my .cshrc file to allow for
    >retrieval and editing of previous commands.  In the KORN shell I
    >export a variable called

    EDITOR:
    >
    >export EDITOR=vi
    >
    >What is the equiv. commands in csh and what do I use to retrieve
    > them.
    >
    >As I remember, the Korn shell has the capability of displaying
    >the last 20 or so commands and then using "vi" type keystrokes
    >to edit directly on the screen and then execute your change.
    >I'm not sure that csh has that exact capability, atleast I've
    >never been able to figure it out.  So, I think the answer is
    >that you can't.  As I understand it all the "export EDITOR=vi"
    >does is set "vi" as a default editor, instead of "ed" or some
    >thing worse.  If you weren't being that specific then the
    >following may be helpful.

    There seems to be three files involved in the startup of the
    C shell (csh).  Read first after log-in is the /etc/cshrc file.
    It is used for system-wide variables.  It is not recognized on
    all systems.  Read second after log-in and each time a subshell
    is started up is your $HOME/username/.cshrc file.  Read third
    after log-in is $HOME/username/.login file.  Use for commands
    that need to be executed once, such as setting the terminal
    with "stty".

    I'm not sure if this system uses prototype startup files.
    We will be working on a shell script to create new user
    accounts and will have to work all that out.

    You could look at other user's .cshrc files

    example$ cat ../stan/.cshrc

    or just start using the following from "UNIX Administration
    Guide for System V" by Rebecca Thomas and Rik Farrow.

    Sample .login file:

      # .login csg script (last updated: 08/22/86)
      # Customize using programs:
      stty intr '^c' erase '^h' kill '^x' quit '^u' echoe
      umask 022
      # Set environment variables:
      setenv JOBNO ON
      setenv TERM ansi
      setenv TZ CST8CDT
      # Set other variables:
      set prompt = "$LOGNAME \!) "
      # Display and record log-in time:
      echo "Your previous log-in time was: `cat .login_time`"
      echo "Your current  log-in time  is: `date|tee .login_time`"

    Sample .cshrc file:

      # .cshrc  (last updated: 08/22/86)
      # Set local variables:
      set history = 20
      set ignoreeof
      set noclobber
      set prompt = "$LOGNAME \!)) "
      set time = 10
      # Set wordlist variables:
      set cdpath = (. ~ ~/Letters ~/Vendors ~/Clients)
      set mail = (/usr/mail/$LOGNAME 3600 /etc/motd)
      # Define aliases:
      alias cd     'cd \!*;dirs;ls'
      alias pwd    'echo $cwd'
      alias rm     'rm -i"

    Suggested reading:
    "UNIX Power Tools" by Jerry Peek, Tim O'Reilly & Mike Loukides
     from O'Reilly & Assoc. ISBN: 0-553-35402-7  STLC: N/A


XIII.  Still more stuff...
  a. Using "users" or "who" or "w"
    users (1)             - display a compact list of users logged in
    who (1)               - who is logged in on the system
    w (1)                 - who is logged in, and what are they doing

    A simple command for finding out who else is currently logged
    onto the system.

    example> users

         mcvicker stan steve totten

    There are other various UNIX commands that give similar results,
    some examples on different systems are "who", "whodo", "who am i"
    and "w".

    >
    > w (1) : bsd version of who(1) that gives more information
    >

  b. Using "finger"
    finger (1)            - display information about users

    A command that provides more detailed information about users.
    It is generally used to determine whether another user is logged
    on to the system or Internet.  It can also be used to find out a
    user's e-mail address.

    example> finger

    Login       Name              TTY Idle    When    Where
    stan     stan reichardt        c       Wed 21:44  remote
    totten   Steve Totten          00      Wed 21:44  remote
    steve    steve pautz           02      Wed 20:44  remote
    mcvicker Eric McVicker         04    1 Wed 19:18  remote

    By specifying the individual username some rather extensive items
    are listed to include displaying personalized user\.plan and
    user\.project file contents (if they have bothered to create these
    files for your reading pleasure).

  c. Using "last"

    This command will list each user's last logon session.  With various
    options you can select single users or just the last 10 or so sessions.
    You can tell how long it has been since a user has logged on.

    example> last gary -10

  d. Using "ps -au"
    ps (1)                - display the status of current processes

    example> ps -au

    USER       PID %CPU %MEM   SZ  RSS TT STAT START  TIME COMMAND
    stan     25746 15.4  7.7  216  528 c  R    21:51   0:00 ps -au
    steve    25565  0.0  8.8 1640  608 02 S    20:52   0:30 tin
    mcvicker 25728  0.0  4.7   56  320 04 S    21:48   0:00 sz -e
    om1_2.zip om1_
    totten   25742  0.0  4.2   48  288 00 S    21:50   0:00 more
    totten   25741  0.0  0.0  648    0 00 IW   21:50   0:01 nroff -ms
    dwnld-dc.t


  e. Using "write" or "talk"
    write (1)             - write a message to another user
    talk (1)              - talk to another user

    Two users logged on to the same host can use "write" to hold
    a discussion by sending messages to each other's screen.  By
    using "talk" the screen is split into two areas and both can
    type at the same time.

    Using these programs must be done when both parties are on line
    at the same time.  You have to know the login name of the other
    party.

  f. Using "mail"
    mail, Mail (1)                - read or send mail messages
    This is a less interactive way of communication between users.
    The advantage is that you don't have to wait for the other user
    to be on the system, you just leave a written message.

    Often refered to as "E-mail" (short for electronic mail), it
    allows sending, forwarding and storage of memorandum like
    messages.

    It can also send data or program files.  Mail can be sent to any
    user on any Internet-linked system, provide you know that user's
    E-mail address (e.g. bill_the_cat@sunday.comics.edu).

    Suggested reading:
    "The Waite Group's UNIX Communications and the Internet,3rd Ed"
     by Anderson, Costales, Henderson & Pike from SAMS Publishing
     ISBN: 0-672-30537-2 STLC: 005.71/W145

  g. Using "telnet"
    telnet (1C)- user interface to a remote system using the TELNET
    protocol

    This allows remote login access to any Internet-linked computer
    (if you have an account), perhaps logging into or from any
    computer on the other side of town or the other side of the world
    as if it were in the next room.

  h. Using "ftp"
    ftp (1C)              - file transfer program

    The "ftp" program is one way to transfer files between your
    computer and another computer with TCP/IP, often over the
    Internet network.  An account with username and password is
    required on the remote computer.

    Because of the bandwidth available on Internet, an FTP file
    transfer takes only a very small fraction of the time that
    would be required to transfer the same file by 2400 baud modem
    over voice telephone lines with standard "kermit" protocol.

  i. Using "anonymous ftp"
    This uses "ftp" and a special restricted account named
    "anonymous" on the remote computer.  It's usually used for
    transferring freely-available files and programs from central
    sites to users at many other computers.

  j. Using "tin"
    tin, rtin, cdtin, tind (1)  - A Netnews reader

  k. Using "trn"
    trn (1)               - threaded read news program

  l. Using "gopher"
    gopher (1)            - connect to gopher document server

    A search tool that presents information in a hierarchical menu
    system
    somewhat like a table of contents.

  m. Using "archie"
    A system for locating files that are stored on FTP servers.

  n. Using "veronica"
    Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized
    Archives): A search tool, like archie, which searches text that
    appears in Gopher menus.  Reportedly "veronica" was chosen simply
    as a friend of "archie" and the acronym-expansion was an
    afterthought.
    Similarly for the "jughead" application.

  o. Using "wais"

  p. Using "www"
    World Wide Web is an extremely powerful UNIX oriented multi-media
    transfer protocol.  It is a distributed hypertext system that
    accesses information on Internet-linked computer servers all over
    the world.  It provides a unified navigation and information access
    system that can present to the user formatted text, data, sound,
    high-quality graphics, and digital movies.


APPENDIXES:


A.  VI editor cheat sheet (adapted from MS-DOS "stevie" clone)

    Positioning within file
      =======================
      ^F      Forward screenfull
      ^B      Backward screenfull
      ^D      scroll down half screen
      ^U      scroll up half screen
      G      Goto line (end default)
      ]]      next function
      [[      previous function
      /re     next occurence of regular expression 're'
      ?re     prior occurence of regular expression 're'
      n       repeat last / or ?
      N       reverse last / or ?
      %       find matching (, ), {, }, [, or ]

    Adjusting the screen
      ====================
      ^L      Redraw the screen
      ^E      scroll window down 1 line
      ^Y      scroll window up 1 line
      z<RETURN> redraw, current line at top
      z-      ... at bottom
      z.      ... at center

    Character Positioning
      =====================
      ^       first non-white
      0       beginning of line
      $       end of line
      h       backward
      l       forward
      ^H      same as h
      space   same as l
      fx      find 'x' forward
      Fx      find 'x' backward
      tx      upto 'x' forward
      Tx      upto 'x' backward
      ;       Repeat last f, F, t, or T
      ,       inverse of ;
      |       to specified column
      %       find matching (, ), {, }, [, or ]

    Line Positioning
      ================
      H       home window line
      L       last window line
      M       middle window line
      +       next line, at first non-white
      -       previous line, at first non-white
      CR      return, same as +
      j       next line, same column
      k       previous line, same column

    Marking and Returning
      =====================
      ``      previous context
      ''      ... at first non-white in line
      mx      mark positon with letter 'x'
      `x      to mark 'x'
      'x      ... a first non-white in line

    Undo & Redo
      ===========
      u       undo last change
      U       restore current line
      .       repeat last change

    Insert and Replace
      ==================
      a       append after cursor
      i       insert before cursor
      A       append at end of line
      I       insert before first non-blank
      o       open line below
      O       open line above
      rx      replace single char with 'x'
      R       replace characters
      ~       change case (upper/lower) of single char

    Words, sentences, paragraphs
      ============================
      w       word forward
      b       back word
      )       to next sentence
      }       to next paragraph
      (       back sentence
      {       back paragraph
      W       blank delimited word
      B       back W
      E       to end of W

    Operators (double to affect lines)
      ==================================
      d       delete
      c       change
      <       left shift
      >       right shift
      y       yank to buffer
      !       filter lines (command name follows)

    Miscellaneous operations
      ========================
      C       change rest of line
      D       delete rest of line
      s       substitute chars
      S       substitute lines (not yet)
      J       join lines
      x       delete characters
      X       ... before cursor

      Yank and Put
        ============
        p       put back text
        P       put before
        Y       yank lines

    Ex command-line operations
      ==========================
      :w              write back changes
      :wq             write and quit
      :x              write if modified, and quit
      :q              quit
      :q!             quit, discard changes
      :e name         edit file 'name'
      :e!             reedit, discard changes
      :e #            edit alternate file (also ctrl-^)
      :w name         write file 'name'
      :n              edit next file in arglist
      :N              edit prior file in arglist
      :rew            rewind arglist
      :f              show current file and lines
      :f file         change current file name
      :g/pat/p|d      global command (print or delete only)
      :g/pat/p|d      global command (print or delete only)
      :s/p1/p2/       text substitution (trailing 'g' optional)
      :ta tag         to tag file entry 'tag'
      ^]              :ta, current word is tag
      :sh             run an interactive shell
      :!cmd           execute a shell command

    Set Parameters
      ==============
      :set param-name[=param-value]    to set
      :set sm, :set nosm, :set co=23   examples
      :set all        display all values
      :set            display non-default values

      Abbrev, name, and current value:
        ei  autoindent  no      sm  showmatch   no
        bk  backup      no      co  color       7
        ts  tabstop     8       mo  showmode    no
        ic  ignorecase  no      ml  modelines   no
        tg  tagstack    no      to  tildeop     no
        eb  errorbells  no      vb  vbell       yes
        lines  lines       25      nu  number      no
        scroll  scroll      12  (# of lines for ^D, ^U)
        list  list        no  (show tabs, newlines graphically)
        report  report      5   (min # of lines to report on oper)
        ws  wrapscan    yes (search wraps around end of files)
        cr  return      yes (write newline to file as CR-LF)

    MSDOS & OS/2 Special Keys
      =========================
      The cursor kepad does pretty much what you'd expect,
      as long as you're not in text entry mode:

      Home, End, PgUp, PgDn, and the arrow keys navigate.
      Insert          enter text before cursor.
      Delete          delete character at the cursor.

    Function Keys
      =============
      F1      Help
      F2      Next file (:n)          Shift-F2  discard changes (:n!)
      F3      Previous file (:N)      Shift-F3  discard changes (:N!)
      F4      Alternate file (:e #)   Shift-F4  discard changes (:e! #)
      F5      Rewind file list (:rew) Shift-F5  discard changes (:rew!)
      F6      Next function (]])      Shift-F6  Prev. function ([[)
      F8      Global subst. (:1,$s/)
      F10     Save & quit (:x)        Shift-F10 discard changes (:q!)


B.  Terms & Abbreivations

    Jargon (or "technical terminology") is a marvelous way to convey a
    lot of information to the knowledgable.  It's also a superb way to
    intimidate the uninitiated.  Why do you suppose it was developed?

    ---- Kelvin Throop III

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    access control information:
      Information used by the system to control access to system
      resources.  Access control is the process of screening inbound
      connect requests and verifying them against a local system
      account file.  Access control is optional.  Access control 
      information consists of a user name, password, and account.

    account:
      The allocation of system resources to each user.  A user must
      have
      an account to use the system.  Each user has a separate account,
      identified by a special account number and password.

    ASCII file:
      A file in ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Exchange)
      format.  A UNIX ascii file is not the same as a MS-DOS ascii
      file, because of CR-LFs.  All DOS text files use a carriage-
      return/linefeed combination, CR-LF, to indicate a newline.
      UNIX System files use a single newline LF character.  When
      transfering DOS text files to the UNIX System filesystem, you
      must strip the CR.  When text files are transfered to DOS, you
      must insert a CR before each LF character.

    backbone:
      A central high-speed network--the NSFnet, for example--that
      connects smaller, independent networks.

    binary file:
      A file in binary (image mode) format.

    case sensitive:
      Refers to the system's ability to distinguish between uppercase
      (A-Z) and lowercase (a-z) letters.

    client:
      A client is used to request that an action be performed by a
      server on a remote machine; the remote server is responsible
      for processing the request and performing the action.

    connect errors:
      A type of error message which indicates that either the local or
      remote system failed to establish a network connection.

    device driver:
      The device driver is the part of the kernel that controls a
      particular type of device.  For each different type of device
      (computer hardware) in a system, there is a device driver.
      For example, the disk controller and the communications
      controller each require a device driver that understands how to
      work that device.  Writing device drivers requires intimate
      knowledge of both the device itself and the way that the rest
      of the kernel works with device drivers.

    DLL:
      Dynamic Link Library.  DLLs contain executable modules used by
      Microsoft Windows Applications. (MS-DOS systems)

    directory:
      A group of files stored on a disk.  A user file directory is a
      file that briefly catalogs a set of files stored on tape or
      disk.  The directory can include information such as the name,
      date....

    DNS (domain name system):
      A scheme for translating numeric internet addresses into strings
      of word segments denoting user names and locations.

    DOS (Dirty Operating System):

    file name:
      The title assigned to identify a specific file.

    FTP (File Transfer Protocol):
      A protocol that describes file transfer between a host and a
      remote computer; also, programs based on thsi protocol.
      A TCP service that transfers files between two systems.

    host:
      An individual computer system in a network that can communicate
      with other computer systems in the network.  Computers that are
      joined together on a network are called "hosts".  Also called
      "node" and "system."  Generally, the machine you are working from
      is referred to as the "local" host.  All other networked machines
      are known as "remote" hosts.

    http:
      http

    internet:
      A collection of packet-switching networks interconnected by
      gateways, along with protocols that allow them to function
      logically as a single, large, virtual network.

    internet mail address
      The syntax is "username@node.domain".

    IP (Internet Protocol):
      A standard that describes how packets of data are transported
      across the Internet and recognized as an incoming message.

    IRC (Internet Relay Chat):
      A software tool that makes it possible to hold real-time keyboard
      conversations on-line.

    kernel:
      The kernel, or operating system "program," gets loaded into the
      computer during startup and stays in memory.  The kernel manages
      the system's hardware, memory, disks, and communications.  System
      calls pass requests to the kernel.  The UNIX kernel was
      deliberately designed to be simple and perform only essential
      tasks.  User programs perform auxiliary tasks using the system
      call interface.

    Local Area Networks (LAN)
      Those networks that are (usually) confined to a small geographic
      area, such as a singlle building or a college campus.

    man pages:
      Actual pages from reference manuals that you can display on
      your screen.

    metacharacters:
      A group of keyboard characters (not including letters or digits)
      that have special meaning either to the shell or the system.  To
      use a metacharacter without its special meaning, either enclose
      it within quotation marks or precede it with a backslash.

    NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification):
      A Microsoft specification for a type of device driver that allows
      multiple transport protocols to run on one network card
      simultaneously.

    network:
      A collection of independent computers which can communicate with
      one another over a shared medium.

    newsgroup:
      A BBS-like forum or conference area where you can post messages
      on a specific topic.  Newsgroups exist for a huge range of
      subjects.

    NFS:
      The Network File System is a facility that allows sharing of
      files in a heterogeneous environment of machines, operating
      systems and networks.  NFS is an extention of TCP/IP developed
      by Sun Microsystems that allows users of different hardware
      platforms and operating systems to share data.

    NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol):
      An extention of the TCP/IP protocol; describes how newsgroup
      messages are transported between compatible servers.

    NT (Not There):

    node:
      An individual computer system in a network that can communicate
      with other computer systems in the network.  Also called "host"
      and "system."

      A node is an active device connected to the network, such as a
      computer or a piece of networking equipment, for example, a
      repeater, a bridge or router.

    ODI (Open Data-link Interface):
      A standard interface, developed by Novell and Apple, that
      performs the same functions as NDIS.

    password:
      A combination of characters that verifies your identity to the
      computer.

    path:
      The list of directories between the root directory and another
      directory.  Also called "directory path."

    PING (Packet Internet Groper):
      A TCP/IP utility that sends packets of information to a computer
      on a network; it can be used to determine whether a computer is
      connected to the Internet.

    pipe:
      A UNIX system pipe connects the output of one UNIX system command
      to the input of another UNIX system command without using a
      temporary file.

    piping:
      The processing of sending the output from one command directly
      to another for use as the later command's input.  You use the
      vertical bar character ( | ) as a pipe between commands.

    protection levels:
      The settings in each file that indicate who may and may not
      access the file.  The settings are "read, write, and execute"
      privileges, and the groups are "owner, group, and world."

    protocol:
      A set of rules or standards that describes ways to operate to
      achieve compatibility.

    RFC:
      Request for Comment

    redirection:
      The process of writing output from a command to a file by using
      the right angle bracket (>), or of reading input for a command
      from a file by using the left angle bracket (<).

      Most UNIX system commands take their input from the terminal and
      produce output on a terminal.  The terminal can be replaced by a
      file for either or both input and output.  This is redirection.
      Input redirection is specified by the less-than sign (<) and a
      greater-than sign (>) and a filename or (>>) and a filename.
      The (>>) means that the output should be attached to the end of
      the file named.

    regular expressions:
      They come out of formal language theory.  They require some work
      to learn but are extremely powerful once you know them.  Good
      editors will support searching with them; I don't know if "vi" has
      a fixed search.

      Something you need to know, but I don't understand it yet
      either.  The basics come back to haunt you.

    remote login session:
      The login or rlogin session you start when you log on to a remote
      node.  When you use the "telnet" command to initiate the remote
      login session, the session is also called the telnet session.

    router:
      A hardware/software solution that directs messages between LANs.

    server:
      A server is simply a program running on a network machine; it has
      its own user identification and can often accept commands sent by
      electronic mail.

    SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol):
      A protocol in a TCP/IP network that describes how e-mail moves
      between hosts and users.

    SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol):
      A protocol that describes how information is passed between
      reporting devices and data collection programs; it can be used
      to gather information about hosts on the Internet.

    standard input
      Input that you provide to the computer.  The input is assigned a
      file descriptor, 0, as a means of indentification.  When you type
      input into the computer directly from your terminal keyboard,
      file descriptor 0 is used by default.  You may redirect the
      standard input so that it is read in from a file instead of the
      terminal.  In this case, the file descriptor is the name you have
      given the input file.

    standard output
      Output that you receive from the computer.  The output is
      assigned a file descriptor, 1, as a means of identification.
      When you receive output from the computer that is printed on
      your terminal, it is assigned file descriptor 1 by default.
      You may redirect the output into a file instead of receiving
      it at the terminal.  In this case, the file descriptor is the
      name you have given the output file.

    TCP/IP:
      This refers to the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
      Protocol developed by the U.S. Department of Defense thru the
      Internet community.  It provides a set of standards for computer
      communications, including routing traffic across networks.
      It is a collection of programs and protocols that enable remote
      systems to communicate at a peer-to-peer level and  enable users
      on UNIX (or Non-UNIX) systems to connect through to remote UNIX
      (or Non-UNIX) systems.  It provides a standard means of
      communication between dissimilar computer hosts on the Internet
      or other networks.

      These are really a family of protocols and not a single
      protocol.  They are specifically designed to accomidate resource
      sharing across networks.  They make it possible to search a
      remote database, transfer a file or use remote applications.

    telnet:
      A virtual terminal protocol (or a program based on that protocol)
      for establishing a login session on a remote computer.

    TSR:
      A Terminate-and-Stay-Resident (TSR) is an MS-DOS program that is
      loaded into memory and runs in the background, enabling other
      programs to be run in the foreground.

    UNIX:
      A registered trademark of  X / Open.

    UPS:
      An Uninterrubtible Power Source.  Usually, but not always with
      lightning and surge protection.

      "If you run UNIX and you don't have a UPS, you should see a
      psychiatrist..." - Byte Magazine

    Usenet  (User Network):
      A public network made up of thousands of newsgroups and organized
      by topic.

    user name:
      The name a user types on a terminal to log on to the system.

    uucp (Unix-to-Unix Copy):
      Originally, a Unix Program that permitted file transfer between
      two Unix based hostsvi a dial-up connection.  The term also
      refers to a Unix networking protocol or to a nework using that
      protocol.

    VxD:
      Virtual "x" Device (where "x" usually identifies the type of
      device).  A VxD takes advantage of capabilities built into the
      Intel processor to manage memory and to simulate multi-tasking
      between applications that use the VxD.

    WAIS (Wide Area Information Server):
      Software that is used to index large text files in servers.  On
      the client side, it finds and retrievs documents in databases,
      based on user-defined keywords.

    WHOIS:
      A TCP/IP utility that lets you query compatible servers for
      detailed information about other Internet users.

    WINDOZE:

    wildcard character:
      A symbol, such as an  asterisk or a percent sign, used within or
      in place of a file name, file type, directory, or version number
      in a file specification to indicate "all" for the given field.

    Winsock (Windows Socket):
      An application programming interface (API) designed to let
      Windows applications run over a TCP/IP network.

    WWW (World Wide Web):
      A network of servers that uses hypertext links to find and access
      files.  Many Web sites also support sound and video.


  F.  Bibliography
    Books, Magazines, Articles & comic books that words were stolen
    from:

    "The C Programming Language"
    Brian W. Kernighan & Dennis M. Ritchie     Prentice-Hall

    "Learning the vi Editor"
    Linda Lamb                                 O'Reilly & Assoc.

    "Learning the UNIX Operating System"
    Grace Todino, John Strang & Jerry Peek     O'Reilly & Associates

    "Modern UNIX"
    Alan Southerton                            J.Wiley & Sons

    "UNIX Power Tools"
    Jerry Peek                                 O'Reilly & Assoc.

    "UNIX Administration Guide for System V"
    Rebecca Thomas & Rik Farrow

    _Analog: Science Fiction and Fact_ Magazine
    _Byte_ Magazine
    _Open Computing_ (formerly UNIX World) Magazine
    _SCO World_ Magazine

DRAFT        DRAFT        DRAFT        DRAFT         DRAFT        DRAFT
DRAFT        User Manual   Last revised Nov. 22, 2003.

 
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